Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a linear polymer; it is mainly divided into sand and colloidal solution.
According to their structure, they can be divided into non-inorganic compounds, cationic and positive ion types. Commodities have been widely used in papermaking industry, concentrator, oil production, metallurgical industry, decorative building materials, wastewater treatment and other fields. Melt feel all over the world, polyacrylamide as a lubricant, suspension agent, clay stabilizer, oil remover, water deficiency agent and viscosities, widely used in drilling, alkalization, fracturing, plugging, cementing and secondary oil recovery, is a very key oil field chemical. According to the survey, 37% of the world's total output value of polyacrylamide is used for sewage treatment, 27% for the petrochemical industry, 18% for the paper industry. Petroleum exploitation polyacrylamide: at the present stage in China's petrochemical industry, polyacrylamide is suitable for polymer flooding (mainly based on the addition of a certain amount of polymer (PAM) in irrigation to enhance the viscosity of irrigation, improve the ratio of oil to water).
In the petrochemical industry, polyacrylamide can also be used as drilling fluid additives, oil and gas plugging agent and fracturing fluid additives.
1. Application of polyacrylamide in tertiary oil recovery
when oil and gas fields enter tertiary oil recovery stage, single irrigation flooding will greatly reduce its harm efficiency, increase water consumption and increase oil moisture content. In addition, the balanced geological environment of the reservoir also reduces the hazard and efficiency, especially if there is a lot of crude oil left at the top of the white-edge fluid. If the addition of polyacrylamide, which can improve water viscosity, is changed from a single water-flooding oil, it will be beneficial to increase hazard efficiency, reduce water content of oil recovery and increase oil production. One ton of polymer can lift 150 tons of oil from an oil field. The introduction of saturated viscous polymer solution increases the hazard index of the introduced fluid, blocks the economic belt, drives the flooding fluid into the small circular hole, and ultimately increases the oil recovery rate.
2 Application of Polyacrylamide in the plugging technology of organic chemical oil and gas fields.
The plugging technology of Organic chemical oil and gas fields in China has been used on the spot for more than 50 years since the 1950s. In the 1970s, water-soluble polymers and colloquium were used in oil and gas fields. During the second half of development and design, moisture content accelerates. At present, the average water content of natural gas Wells has reached more than 90%. Therefore, water plugging profile control labor gradually increased, workload. At present, polyacrylamide as a symbol of water-soluble polymer in China is generally reasonable plugging raw materials. Because polyacrylamide dissolves water and does not dissolve in oil, it should be limited to tubewells after the introduction of geological structures, and does not harm gas production. The treatment method does not accurately measure the total area of water resources and decoration partition, to solve the low cost. Polyacrylamide has a unique plugging selectivity, easy to chemical cross-linking, suitable for different permeable geological structures.
3 Application of polyacrylamide in drilling sand slurry.
polyacrylamide can be used as viscose agent, improve the viscosity of sand slurry, control the proportion of sand slurry, clay in the drilling fluid, drilling cuttings, out of drilling cuttings, drilling cuttings are not easy to sink into the sand slurry, resulting in stuck drilling. Then improve the safety factor and reliability of the worker's work.
Polyacrylamide can also be used as a lubricant suction in alloy or clay particles to produce liquid film, from the solid surface friction to liquid friction, and then embellish the twine drill and drilling equipment, reduce the friction resistance of soil layer, reduce underground safety accidents.
Polyacrylamide can be used as a plugging agent. The commodity can be in the chloride ion content, iron ion, calcium ion plasma effect of chemical crosslinking, a part of the polymer chemicals from linear into body type, insoluble in water, absorption in the well wall, blocking the gap in the geological structure, the outflow of drilling fluid. Fluid loss reducer, mud cake to reduce water permeability, maintain wellbore standards, avoid wellbore collapse, reduce oil stain.
Polyacrylamide has strong flocculation, which can flocculate the sand slurry and coal rock in the whole drilling process, resulting in large flocculation group, which is conducive to combing in the well. 2) PAM has good viscosity and viscosity besides flocculation. In the whole drilling process, it can clean the twist drill and drill tools, reduce contradictions, reduce friction resistance, improve drilling speed, reduce drilling costs. 3) polyacrylamide can be more according to the actual effect of absorption, super glue maintenance and blocking the actual effect of colloidal solution particles in drilling fluid, prevent leachate into the geological structure caused by clay water peng, prevent wellbore collapse. 4) During the whole drilling process, due to the geological structure, the drilling fluid will leak, and the polyacrylamide gel can block cracks and loose rock layers.
4 Application of polyacrylamide in sewage treatment.
industrial wastewater treatment special polyacrylamide key as industrial wastewater treatment coagulant. Because the chain of its molecular structure contains a certain amount of positive and negative polar genes, it can digest and absorb solid particles floating in water, and then produce relatively large flocculants on the railway bridge between particles. When polyacrylamide is added to the floating turbidity particles in the water, polyacrylamide will promote the rapid solidification of floating particles and foundation settlement according to the charge and the absorption of the polymer itself, so as to separate out the actual effect of response, thus improving the efficiency of operation and reducing the cost of operation.
5 BTW, polyacrylamide is also widely used in paper industry.
polyacrylamide is widely used in the paper industry, such as retention agent, diatomite filter aid, wetting agent, etc. Its function is to improve printing paper quality, pulp desiccating characteristics, fine chemical fiber and filler retention rate, raw material consumption and air pollution. The effectiveness of its use in the paper industry lies in its average molecular weight, ionization and activity of other polymers. Non positive ion PAM is suitable for improving the filter of paper paddle, enhance the compressive strength of dry paper, improve the retention rate of chemical fiber and filling material; Cationic polymer as a key printing paper dry humidity synergist and retention agent; The positive ion polymer is suitable for wastewater treatment and filtration aid in papermaking industry and has good practical effect on improving the retention rate of filling material. In addition, PAM is also used for papermaking wastewater treatment and chemical fiber recycling.